HUKUM DAN POLITIK DI CHINA (KAJIAN RELASI KEKUASAAN PARTAI TERHADAP PROFESI HUKUM)

Isharyanto Isharyanto
  Arena Hukum, Vol 14, No 1 (2021),  pp. 84-111  
Viewed : 69 times

Abstract


Abstract

This article discusses the legal and political issues in the People's Republic of China by examining interactions between the legal profession which have a profound but undisputed impact on daily law enforcement and broader state-community relations. This doctrinal research uses conceptual approach. The results shows that since the late 1970s, China has experienced significant political, economic, social and cultural changes. The legal system had restoration but retained the character of state hostility towards this entity. Courts, prosecutors and the police are government apparatus controlled by the party as the highest authority in formulating and control policy. The lawyer's profession has been privatized, but with the lack in the legal education system, issues of attorney's capacity have surfaced. Lawyers are permitted to join professional associations, but party control remains strong. Critical and active lawyers are likely to have a wide-ranging impact in the future on the existence of judges, prosecutors and police, even including the party's authoritarians themselves.

 

Abstrak

Tulisan ini membahas masalah hukum dan politik di Republik Rakyat China dengan menguji interaksi di antara profesi hukum yang memiliki dampak mendalam namun belum tergarap pada penegakan hukum sehari-hari dan hubungan negara-masyarakat yang lebih luas. Penelitian doktrinal ini menggunakan pendekatan konseptual. Hasilnya, sejak akhir 1970-an, China telah mengalami perubahan politik, ekonomi, sosial, dan budaya secara signifikan. Hukum mengalami restorasi tetapi mempertahankan watak permusuhan negara terhadap entitas ini. Pengadilan, kejaksaan, dan kepolisian merupakan aparatur pemerintah yang dikendalikan partai sebagai otoritas tertinggi perumus dan pengawas kebijakan. Profesi pengacara telah diprivitisasi, namun dengan kesenjangan sistem pendidikan hukum, persoalan kapasitas pengacara mengemuka. Pengacara diperbolehkan bergabung dalam perhimpunan profesi, namun kendali partai tetap kuat. Pengacara yang kritis dan aktif akan memberikan dampak luas di masa depan terhadap keberadaan para hakim, jaksa, dan polisi, bahkan termasuk kepada otoritarian partai itu sendiri.


Keywords


lawyer; China; law and politics.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Buku

Bourdieu, Pierre, dan Loïc Wacquant. An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Dean, Meryll. Japanese Legal System: Text and Materials. London: Cavendish Publishing, 1997.

Fu, H. “Access to Justice in China: Potentials, Limits, and Alternatives.” Dalam China and Vietnam Compared: Law Reform in Communist Asia, disunting oleh J. Gillespie dan A. Chen. London: Routledge, 2010.

Juwana, Hikmahanto. “Penegakan Hukum dalam Kajian Law and Development: Problem dan Fundamen bagi Solusi di Indonesia.” Yogyakarta, 2013.

Lan, R. “Are Intellectual Property Litigants Treated Fairer in China’s Courts? An Empirical Study of Two Sample Courts?” India: Indiana University Research Center for Chinese Politics and Business, 2012.

Lieberthal, Kenneth, dan David M. Lampton. Bureaucracy, Politics, and Decision Making in Post-Mao China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Manullang, E. Fernando. Menggapai Hukum Berkeadilan Tinjauan Hukum Kodrat dan Antinomi Nilai. Jakarta: Kompas Gramedia Nusantara, 2007.

Xiao-Planes, Xiaohong. “Of Constitutions and Constitutionalism: Trying to Build a New Political Order in China, 1908-1949.” Dalam Building Constitutionalism in China, disunting oleh Stéphanie Balme dan Michael W. Dowdle. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Jurnal

Ahl, Björn, dan Daniel Sprick. “Towards judicial transparency in China: The new public access database for court decisions.” China Information Vol. 32, No. 1, (2018): 3 –22.

Asimow, Michael. “Five Models of Administrative Adjudication.” The American Journal of Comparative Law Vol. 63, No. 1, (2015).

Babaran, Cynthia Losure. “Inspiring Global Professionalism: Challenges and Opportunities For American Lawyer in China.” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies Vol. 73, (2005): 1247–59.

Bourdieu, Pierre. “The Force of Law: Toward a Sociology of the Juridical Field.” Hastings Law Journal Vol. 38, (1987): 805–53.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik. “Politics and Business Group Formation in China: The Party in Control?” The China Quarterly 211, (2012): 624–48.

Chan, Stephen L. “Diferences Between British and Chinese View of LawForebode Uncertainties For HongKong’s People After the 1997’s Transfer.” UCLA Pasific Basin Law Journal 15, (1996): 157.

Chunying, Xin. “What kind of judicial power does China need?” International Journal of Constitutional Law Vol.1, No. 1, (2003): 58–78.

Civic, Melanne Andromecca. “Comparative Analysis of International & Chinese Human Rights Law-Universality Versus Cultural Relativism.” Buffalo Journal of International Law 2, (1996): 304.

Clarke, Donald C. “New Approaches to the Study of Political Order in China.” Modern China Vol. 36, No. 1, (2010): 87–99.

Dellapenna, Joseph W. “he Role of Legal Rhetoric in the Failure of Democratic Change in China.” Buffalo Journal of International Law 2, (1996): 236–37.

Donaldson, John A. “China’s administrative hierarchy: The balance ofpower and winners and losers within China’s levelsof government.” Dalam Assessing the balance of power in central-local relations in China, disunting oleh John A. Donaldson. Abingdon: Routledge, 2017.

Emirbayer, Mustafa. “Manifesto for a Relational Sociology.” American Journal of Sociology 103, (1997): 281–317.

Finder, S. “Supreme People’s Court of the People’s Republic of China.” Chinese Journal of International Law 7, (1993): 145–224.

Fu, Hualing. “The July 9th (709) Crackdown on Human Rights Lawyers: Legal Advocacy in an Authoritarian State.” Journal of Contemporary China 27, (2018): 554–68.

Gao, Jie. “Comparison Between Chinese and American Lawyers: Educated and Admitted to Practice Differently in Different Legal Systems.” Penn State International Law Review Vol. 29, no. 1, (2010): 129–46.

Gao, Lingyun. “What Makes A Lawyer In China? The Chinese Legal Education System After China’s Entry Into The Wto.” Willamette Journal of International Law and Dispute Resolution Vol. 10, no. 1, (2002): 197–237.

Grimheden, J. “Themis V. Xiezhi: Assessing Judicial Independence in the People’s Republic of China Under International Human Rights Law.,” 2004.

Gu, Weixia. “Judicial Review over Arbitration in China: Assessing the Extent of the Latest Pro-Arbitration Move by the Supreme People’s Court in the People’s Republic of China.” Wisconsin International Law Journal Vol. 27, no. 2, (2009): 221.

Gu, Yujie. “Entering the Chinese Legal Market: A Guide For LawyersInterested in Practicing Law in China.” Drake Law Review 48, (2000): 173–90.

Hajiji, Merdi. “Relasi Hukum Dan Politik Dalam Sistem Hukum Indonesia.” Jurnal Rechtsvinding Vol. 2, No. 3, (2013): 361–73.

He, Xin. “Why Did They Not Take the Disputes? Law, Power, Politics in theDecision-Making of Chinese Courts.” International Journal of Law in Context 3, (2007): 203.

Howson, Nicholas C. “China’s Judicial System and Judicial Reform.” The Law Quadrangle Vol. 54, no. 1, (2011): 62–64.

Huang, Philip C. C. “Court Mediation in China, Past and Present.” Modern China Vol. 32, No. 3, (2006): 275–314.

Ip, Eric C. “Judicial Review in China: A Positive Political Economy Analysis.” Review of Law & Economics Vol. 8, No. 2, (2012): 331–66.

Katz, Paul R. “Ritual? What Ritual? Secularization in the Study of Chinese Legal History, from Colonial Encounters to Modern Scholarship.” Social Compass Vol. 56, No. 3, (2009): 328–44.

Kawagishi, Norikazu. “The birth of judicial review in Japan.” International Journal of Constitutional Law Vol. 5, No. 2, (2007): 308–331.

Keyuan, Zou. “Judicial Reform in China: Recent Developments and Future Prospects.” The International Lawyer Vol. 36, No. 3, (2002): 1039–62.

Landry, Pierre F. “Does the Communist Party Help Strengthen China’s Legal Reforms?” China Review 9, no. 1 (2009): 45–71.

Latif, Abdul, dan Hasbi Ali. Politik Hukum. Jakarta: Sinar Grafika, 2011.

Lei, Shaohua. “Contentious Politics And Political Stability In Contemporary China: An Institutionalist Explanation.” Dissertation Departmen of Politics The University of Utah, 2013.

Li, Cheng. “The Chinese Communist Party: Recruiting and Controlling the New Elites.” Journal of Current Chinese Affairs Vol. 38, no. 3, (2009): 13–33.

Li, Li Ying, dan Yue Ma. “Adjudication and Legal Reforms in Contemporary China.” Contemporary Criminal Justice Vol.25, no. 1, (2010): 36–52.

Li, Ling. “The Chinese Communist Party and People’s Courts:Judicial Dependence in China.” The American Journal Of Comparative Law 64, (2016): 36–74.

Li, Weng. “Philosophical Influences On Contemporary Chinese Law.” Indiana International & Comparative Law Review Vol. 6, No. 2, (1996): 328–36.

Lidong, Cai, dan Qi Yingcheng. “Judicial Governance of ‘Fake Divorce’ with Chinese Characteristics: Practical Rationality of the Chinese Courts in the Transitional Period.” China Review Vol. 19, No. 2, (2019): 99–124.

Liebman, Benjamin L. “China’s Courts: Restricted Reform.” The China Quarterly no. 191, (2007): 620–38.

Liu, Sida. “Globalization as Boundary-Blurring: International and Local Law Firms in China’s Corporate Law Market.” Law & Society Review Vol. 42, No. 4, (2008): 771–804.

Liu, Sida, dan Terence C. Halliday. “Recursivity in Legal Chance: Lawyers and Reforms of China’s Criminal Procedure Law.” Law & Social Inquiry 34, (2009): 911–50.

Liu, Sida, dan Hongqi Wu. “The Ecology of Organizational Growth: Chinese Law Firms in the Age of Globalization.” American Journal of Sociology 122, (2016): 798–837.

LO, Carlos Wing-Hung, dan Snape ED. “Lawyers in the People’s Republic of China: A Study of Commitment and Professionalization.” The American Journal of Comparative Law Vol. 53, No. 2, (2005): 433–55.

Lubman, Stanley. “Looking for Law in China.” Columbia Journal of Asian Law Vol. 20, No. 1, (2006): 1–92.

McMorrow, Judith, Sida Liu, dan Benjamin Van Rooij. “Lawyer Discipline in an Authoritarian Regime: Empirical Insights from Zhejiang Province, China.” Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics 30, (2017): 267–300.

Meyer, Marshall W. “The Growth of Public and Private Bureaucracies.” Theory and Society 16, (1987): 215–35.

Michelson, Ethan. “Dear Lawyer Bao: Everyday Problems, Legal Advice, and State Power in China.” Social Problems Vol. 55, No. 1, (2008): 43–71.

Morris, Robert J. “China’s Marbury: Qi Yuling v. Chen Xiaoqi – The Once and Future Trial of Both Education & Constitutionalization.” Tsinghua China Law Review 2, no. 2, (2010): 274–312.

Pieke, Frank N. “The Communist Party and Social Management in China.” China Information Vol. 26, No. 2, (2012): 149–65.

Qianfan, Zhang. “A Constitution without Constitutionalism? The Paths of Constitutional Developments in China.” International Journal of Constitutional Law Vol. 8, No. 4, (2010): 950–76.

Salam, Abdus. “Pengaruh Politik Dalam Pembentukan Hukum Di Indonesia.” Mazahib Vol. 15, No. 2, (2015): 120–31.

Sartor, Valerie. “China’s Evolving Legal System.” American Journal of Chinese Studies Vol. 16, No. 1, (2009): 67–69.

Slind-Flor, Victoria. “China’s Riches Lure Lawyers.” National Law Journal 29, (1993): 23–24.

Tang, Yingmao, dan John Zhuang Liu. “Mass Publicity of Chinese Court Decisions: Market-Driven or Authoritarian Transparency?” China Review Vol. 19, No. 2, (2019): 15–40.

Thornton, John L. “Long Time Coming: The Prospects for Democracy in China.” Foreign Affairs Vol. 87, No. 1, (2008): 2–22.

Travekas, Susan. “Severe and Swift Justice in China.” British Journal of Criminology 34, (2006): 23–41.

Trevaskes, Susan. “Political Ideology, the Party, and Politicking: Justice System Reform in China.” Modern China Vol. 37, No. 3, (2011): 315–44.

———. “Propagating Justice through Court and Prosecution Work in China.” Modern China Vol. 43, No. 2, (2017): 156–185.

———. “The Supreme People’s Court, the Suspended Death Sentence and the Politics of Penal Reform.” The British Journal of Criminology Vol. 53, No. 3, (2013): 482–99.

Tu, Guangjian. “The Hague Choice of Court Convention: A Chinese Perspective.” The American Journal of Comparative Law Vol. 55, No. 2, (2007): 347–65.

Wang, Juan, dan Sida Liu. “Ordering Power under the Party: A Relational Approach to Law and Politics in China.” Asian Journal of Law and Society 6, (2019): 1–18.

Wang, Yuhua. “Court Funding and Judicial Corruption in China.” The China Journal 69, (2013): 43–63.

Wang, Zhuhao, dan David R. A. Caruso. “Is an Oral-Evidence Based Criminal Trial Possible in China?” The International Journal of Evidence & Proof Vol. 21, No. 1–2, (2017): 52–68.

Weidong, Ji. “The Judicial Reform in China: The Status Quo and Future Directions.” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies Vol. 20, No. 1, (2013): 185–220.

Xu, Xiaoqun. Trial of Modernity: Judicial Reform in Early Twentieth-Century China, 1901-1937. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008.

Zhang, Taisu. “The Pragmatic Court: Reinterpreting the Superme People’s Court of China.” Columbia Journal of Asian Law 25 (2012): 1–61.

Zheng Sophia, Tang. “Effectiveness Of Exclusive Jurisdiction Clauses In The Chinese Courts—A Pragmatic Study.” The International and Comparative Law Quarterly Vol. 61, No. 2, (2012): 459–84.

Zhong, J., dan G. Yu. “Establishing the Truth on Facts: Has the Chinese Civil Process Achieved This Goal.” Journal of Transnational Law & Policy 13, No. 2, (2004): 393–446.

Disertasi

Michelson, Ethan. “Unhooking from the State: Chinese Lawyers in Transition.” Disertasi Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, 2003.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Arena Hukum

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.