PERKEMBANGAN DISKURSUS PERLINDUNGAN AGAMA DARI PENGHINAAN DAN KRITIK DALAM ATURAN PENODAAN AGAMA

Anak Agung Ayu Nanda Saraswati, Kadek Wiwik Indrayanti
  Arena Hukum, Vol 12, No 3 (2019),  pp. 556-575  
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Abstract


ABSTRACT

This article attempts to analyze public order as one of the permissible limitations of freedom of expression. There are different definitions of public order among countries. Some consider blasphemy, including cultural sensitivity and religious values as public orders, therefore a permissiblelimitations. For this reason, the views and interpretations of cultural relativism are important to be examined. This article concludes that countries with restrictions argue that freedom of expression is not absolute, but can be limited by religious values and cultural sensitivity, part of public order. Whereas based on the view of cultural relativism, all freedoms must be in accordance with local law, culture and local religion. However, the United Nations are in position that religious values and cultural sensitivity are not legitimate limitations to freedom of expression. Such limitations are not designed to protect belief systems from external or internal criticism, but to protect individuals against direct violations of their right. In this respect, the need for healthy dialogue and debate about religion are necessity.

 

ABSTRAK

Artikel ini hendak menganalisa ketertiban umum sebagai salah satu pembatasan sah kebebasan berekspresi. Apa yang dimaksud dengan ketertiban umum diantara negara-negara berbeda. Ada negara yang menganggap bahwa penodaan agama merupakan pembatasan yang sah. Untuk itu, pandangan dan interpretasi dari pandangan relativisme budaya menjadi penting untuk diteliti. Artikel ini menyimpulkan bahwa negara-negara yang melakukan pembatasan berargumen kebebasan berekspresi tidaklah bersifat absolut, tetapi dapat dibatasi oleh nilai-nilai agama serta sensitifitas budaya yang merupakan bagian daripublic order. Berdasarkan pandangan relativisme budaya, segala kebebasan harus tetap sesuai dengan hukum, budaya dan juga agama setempat. Hanya saja, dalam hukum internasional, PBB tidak memposisikan penodaan agama termasuk nilai-nilai agama dan sensitifitas budaya sebagai pembatasan yang sah. Hal ini karena pembatasan tersebut tidak didesain untuk melindungi sistem kepercayaan dari kritik eksternal, melainkan melindungi individu dari pelanggaran langsung atas haknya. Dalam hal ini, dialog sehat dan perdebatan ilmiah tentang agama adalah suatu kebutuhan yang esensial.


Keywords


Freedom of expression; cultural sensitivity; religious values; international law

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References


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