Analysis Of The EU Cybersecurity Act Under The Theory Of Neoliberal Institutionalism
Keywords:European Union Digital Single Market, Cybercrime, The Cybersecurity Act, International Regime
AbstractWannacry Ransomware epidemics have attacked several high-profile companies in European Union creating an EU-wide cybersecurity crisis in the digital economy and social order. In response, European Union established an appropriate regulation in cybercrime namely The Cybersecurity Act. The Act as an international regime does not only gives a permanent mandate that strengthens European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) but also establishes The EU Cybersecurity Certification Scheme in order to increase cybersecurity and build cyber resilience in the European Union Digital Single Market. This paper investigates how does the Cybersecurity Act as a business law in maintaining cybersecurity aspect on the European Union Digital Single Market through the theory of neoliberal institutionalism as a framework of thinking. After a series of conduction of literature reviews, this research argues that The Cybersecurity Act would be an appropriate regulation in dealing with the cybersecurity crisis in the digitalized market order. The standardization in The EU Cybersecurity Certification Scheme regulated by The Cybersecurity Act would improve cybersecurity and build cyber resilience in the European Union Digital Single Market.
Boin, Arjen. The Politics of Crisis Management: Public Leadership Under Pressure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Cassleman, Rick. “Expanding Cyber Resilience Beyond Convention Resiliency and Nuclear Command, Control, and Communications”. In On the Horizon: A Collection of Papers from the Next Generation, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2020.
Keohane, Robert O. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1984.
PWC. “Information Security Breaches Survey 2015”. In ISBS Technical Report Blue. London: HM Government, 2015.
Suardi, Moh. Ideologi Politik Pendidikan Kontemporer. Yogyakarta: Deepublish, 2015.
I.V, A, and K A.I. "Model Management Trends and the Digital Economy: from Regional Development to Global Economic Growth." In Digital Maturity: Definition and Model. 2nd International Scientific and Practical Conference. Amsterdam: Atlantis Press, 2020.
Annarelli, Alessandro. et al. “Understanding the Management of Cyber Resilience Systems”. Elsavier Ltd, (September 2020). Accessed 20 November 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2020.106829.
Backman, Sarah. “Conceptualizing Cyber Crises”. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, (December 2020): 429-438. Accessed 13 April 2022, doi: https://doi.org/10/1111/1468-5973.12347.
Bechara, Fabio R, and Samara B Schuch. “Cybersecurity and Global Regulatory Challenges”. Journal of Financial Crime Vol. 28, No. 2, (November 2020): 359-374. Accessed 12 December 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/JFC-07-2020-0149.
Dumitru, Ovidiu Loan and Andrei Viorel Tomescu. European Consumer Law in The Digital Single Market. Juridical Tribune Vol. 10, No. 2, (June 2020): 1-17. Accessed 7 August 2020, doi: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3641921.
Goodman, E.F. “Your Duty If You Discover a Data Breach.” American Bar Association, (2008): 16-19.
Holtfreter, R.E., and A Harrington. "Data breach trends in the United States." Journal of Financial Crime Vol. 22, No. 2, (2015): 242-260. Accessed 5 June 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/JFC-09-2013-0055.
Kamble, R.M. “Cyber Law and Information Technology”. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 5. Accessed 13 April 2022, ISSN 2229-5518.
Keohane, Robert O and Lisa L Martin. “The Promise of Insitutionalist Theory.” International Security, Vol. 20, No. 1. (Summer 1995): 39-51.
Sabillon, Regner. et al. “Cybercrime and Cybercriminals: A Comprehensive Study”. International Journal of Computer Networkds and Communications Security, Vol. 4, No. 6, (June 2016): 165-176, accessed 13 April 2022, E-ISSN 2308-9830.
Semma, P.S. et al. “Overview of Cyber Security”. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Enginering. Vol. 7, No. 11, (November 2018): 125-128, accessed 13 April 2022, doi: htps://doi.org/10.17148/IJARCCE.2018.71127.
Stanciu, Victoria and Andrei Tinca. “Exploring Cybercrime – Realities and Challenges”. Journal Accounting and Management Information System. Vol. 16, No. 4, (2017): 610-632, accessed 13 April 2022, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10/24818/jamis.2017.04009.
Dellinger, A. “Tellefonica WannaCry Ransomware: One of Spain’s Largest Telecom Companies Hit By Cyberattack”. IB Times, (5 December 2017): 1.
Ecommerce News. “Ecommerce in Europe”. Ecommerce News, (November 2021): 1.
Field, Matthew. “WannaCry Cyber Attack Cost the NHS £92 m as 19,000 Appointments Cancelled”. The Telegraph, (11 October 2018): 1.
Abubakar, Ahmed Umar. Business Law. Honolulu: Atlantic International University. 2006.
Alert (TA16-091A). “Ransomware and Recent Variants”. https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/TA16-091A. Accessed 20 December 2020.
Boichenko, Tetiana. “How to choose a reliable big data enterprise analytics provider?”. https://www.n-ix.com/how-choose-big-data-enterprise-analytics-provider/. Accessed 22 December 2022.
Britannica, T. “Business Law”. https://www.britannica.com/topic/business-law. Accessed 21 December 2020
Cavallo, Marco Antonio. “The Growing Importance of the Technology Economy”. https://www.cio.com/article/3152568/the-growing-importance-of-the-technology-economy.html#:~:text=Technology%20has%20deeply%20affected%20the,and%20more%20robust%20international%20trade. Accessed 21 December 2020
Deloitte. “Cyber Crisis Management”. https://www2.deloitte.com/global/en/pages/risk/cyber-strategic-risk/articles/cyber-crisis-management.html. Accessed 21 December 2020.
ENISA. “Bolstering ENISA in The EU Cybersecurity Certification Framework”. https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/bolstering-enisa-in-the-eu-cybersecurity-certification-framework. Accessed 22 December 2020.
ENISA. “Information security and privacy standards for SMEs”. https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/standardisation-for-smes/at_download/fullReport. Accessed 22 December 2020.
European Commission. “Cloud Computing”. https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/policies/cloud-computing. Accessed 22 December 2020.
European Commission. “Digital Economy and Digital Society Statistics at Regional Level”. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Digital_economy_and_digital_society_statistics_at_regional_level. Accessed 22 December 2020.
European Commission. “Digital Transformation Scoreboard 2018 EU business go digital: Opportunities, outcome, and uptake”. https://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/dem/monitor/sites/default/files/Digital%20Transformation%20Scoreboard%202018_0.pdf. Accessed 22 December 2020.
European Commission. “Integration of Digital Technology by Enterprises”. https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/integration-digital-technology-enterprises. Accessed 13 April 2021.
European Commission. “The EU Cybersecurity Act Brings a Strong Agency for Cybersecurity and EU-Wide Rules on Cybersecurity Certification”. https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/eu-cybersecurity-act-brings-strong-agency-cybersecurity-and-eu-wide-rules-cybersecurity. Accessed 17 January 2021.
European Commission. “The EU Cybersecurity Certification Framework”. https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/eu-cybersecurity-certification-framework. Accessed 21 Janury 2021.
European Commission. “The European Single Market”. https://ec.europa.eu/growth/single-market_en. Accessed 22 December 2020.
European Union. “Division of Competences within the European Union”. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=legissum:ai0020#:~:text=The%20EU%20has%20only%20the,attain%20the%20objectives%20provided%20therein. Accessed 21 January 2021.
Eurostat. “E-commerce statistics”. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=E-commerce_statistics#Esales_remain_stable_over_recent_years. Accessed 13 February 2021.
HM Government. “The exchange and protection of personal data.”. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/639853/The_exchange_and_protection_of_personal_data.pdf. Accessed 17 April 2021.
IMD. “IMD World Digital Competitiveness Ranking 2019”. https://www.imd.org/wcc/world-competitiveness-center-rankings/world-digital-competitiveness-rankings-2019/. Accessed 12 December 2020.
IT Governance. “The EU Cybersecurity Act”. https://www.itgovernance.co.uk/eu-cybersecurity-act. Accessed 21 Janury 2021.
Kostov, N. “WannaCry Attack hits Renault, 200.000-plus victims”. https://www.marketwatch.com/story/wannacry-attack-hits-renault-200000-plus-victims-2017-05-15. Accessed 22 December 2020.
COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT Accompanying the document PROPOSAL FOR A REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on ENISA, the "EU Cybersecurity Agency", and repealing Regulation (EU) 526/2013, and on Information and C”.
Proposal For A Regulation of The European Parliament and of the Council on ENISA, the ‘EU Cybersecurity Agency’, and Repealing Regulation (EU) 526/2013, and on Information and Communication Technology Cybersecurity Certification (‘Cybersecurity Act’).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Arena Hukum
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This journal embed or display simple machine-readable CC licensing information. This journal allow reuse and remixing of content in accordance with a Creative Commons license, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY NC). This license (CC BY NC) allows other users to re-edit / rewrite and rebuild a work non-commercially as long as the user gives credit and licenses his new work in the same domain.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY NC) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).