REFUGEE BURDEN SHARING: AN EVOLVING REFUGEE PROTECTION CONCEPT?
Keywords:international cooperation, burden sharing, international solidarity
This article discusses cooperation between states as part of the international community in handling and protecting the refugees which arrive in one's territory massively, observed from international law standpoint. The concept of cooperation, which is further known as burden sharing concept, is rooted from the principle of international cooperation and international solidarity which is developing as a principle agreed by states and are widely recognized as a general principle of law. The central question is how such concept exists under international law and how is the implementation by states, especially Indonesia. It concludes that burden sharing is a concept that is still evolving so that there is no rigid guidance in the implementation yet. Therefore, there are varieties of implementation mechanisms among states. In relation with Indonesia, it needs support from other countries in handling the mass influx of refugees, especially the Rohingya refugees. Finally, this article suggests that as part of international community, states should always assert their contribution in accommodating the mass influx of refugees which certainly would very burdening if it is handled only by one state.
Artikel ini membahas kerjasama antar Negara sebagai bagian dari masyarakat internasional dalam menangani dan melindungi para pengungsi yang tiba di wilayah tertentu secara besar-besaran, berdasarkan sudut pandang hukum internasional. Konsep kerjasama, yang selanjutnya dikenal dengan konsep pembagian beban (burden-sharing), berakar dari prinsip kerjasama internasional dan solidaritas internasional yang berkembang sebagai prinsip yang disepakati oleh Negara dan dikenal secara luas sebagai prinsip umum hukum. Pertanyaan utamanya adalah bagaimana konsep tersebut di bawah hokum internasional dan bagaimana pelaksanaannya oleh negara-negara, khususnya Indonesia. Tulisan ini menyimpulkan bahwa pembagian beban (burden-sharing) adalah konsep yang masih terus berkembang sehingga belum ada panduan yang kaku dalam pelaksanaannya. Oleh karena itu, ada beberapa jenis mekanisme pelaksanaan antarnegara. Berkaitan dengan Indonesia, dibutuhkan dukungan dari negara lain dalam menangani masuknya massa pengungsi, terutama pengungsi Rohingya. Akhirnya, artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa sebagai bagian dari masyarakat internasional, Negara harus selalu memberikan kontribusi mereka dalam mengakomodasi masuknya massa pengungsi yang tentunya akan sangat membebani jika ditangani hanya oleh satu negara.
Democratic Progress Institute, The Refugee Crisis: Refugees, Conflict and International Law, Democratic Progress Institute, 2016.
UNHCR, â€œBurden-Sharing â€“ Discussion Paper Submitted by UNHCR Fifth Annual Plenary Meeting of the APC,â€ 2000.
European Parliament, What System of Burden Sharing Between Member States for the Reception of Asylum Seekers?, Directorate-General for Internal Policies, 2010.
Noll Gregor, â€œNegotiating Asylum, The EU Acquis, Extraterritorial Protection and the Common Market of Deflectionâ€, The Hague, 2000.
Andreas Zimmermann, ed., The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol: A Commentary, Oxford, 2011.
UNHCR, â€œMechanisms of International Cooperation to Share Responsibilities and Burdens in Mass Influx Situations,â€ 2001.
Eiko R. Thielemann and Torun Dewan, â€œWhy States Donâ€™t Defect: Refugee Protection and Implicit Burden-Sharingâ€, 2007.
UNHCR, â€œThe State of the Worldâ€™s Refugees: In Search of Solidarityâ€, The Office of UNHCR, 2012.
Mark E. Villiger, Commentary on the 1969 Vienna
Convention on the Law of Treaties, Martinus Nijhoff, 2009.
ShyamiPuvimanasinghe, â€œInternational Solidarity in an Interdependent Worldâ€, OHCHR, 2013.
Gilbert Jagger, â€œOn The History of the International Protection of Refugeeâ€, International Committee of the Red Cross 83, 2001, p. 727.
Erika Feller, â€œThe Evolution of International Refugee Protection Regimeâ€, UNCHR Journal of Law and Policy, 2001, p. 130.
Peter H. Schuck, â€œRefugee Burden-Sharing: A Modest Proposalâ€, Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository, 1997, p. 252.
Max H. Hulme, â€œPreambles in Treaty Interpretationâ€, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 2016.
Ernst Sauer, â€œUniversal Principles in International Law,â€
British Institute of International and Comparative Law 42, 1956.
Tempo.Co, â€œPBB: JumlahPengungsi di SeluruhDuniaMencapai 65 Jutaâ€, available at: https://m.tempo.co/read/news/2016/06/20/115781566/pbb-jumlah-pengungsi-di-seluruh-dunia-mencapai-65-juta, accessed on 19 March 2017.
Kate Bratingham, â€œNon-Refoulementâ€, available at, http://www.judicialmonitor.org/archive_0306/generalprinciples.html, accessed 19 March 2017.
ICRC, "Humanitarian Law, Human Rights, and Refugee
Law â€“ Three Pillars", available at https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/statement/6t7g86.htm, accessed 11 July 2017.
Avinash Dixit and Barry Nalebuff, "Prisoner's Dilemma", Library of Economics and Liberty, available at http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/PrisonersDilemma.html accessed on 19 May 2017.
UNHCR, â€œState Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocolâ€, available at http://www.unhcr.org/protection/basic/3b73b0d63/states-parties-1951-convention-its-1967-protocol.html, accessed on 26 May 2017.
United Nations Convention on the Status of Refugees, opened for signature 28 July 1951, 137 UNTS 189, Preamble (entered into force 22 April 1954).
Organization of African Unity (OAU), Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of the Refugee Problem in Africa, opened for signature 10 September 1969, 1001 UNTS 45 (entered into force 24 June 1970).
United Nations General Assembly A/AC.96/1003, â€œReport of the Fifty-Fifth Session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissionerâ€™s Programme, 2004.
UNHCR, Conclusions Adopted by the Executive Committee No. 22 (XXXII) of 1981 on the protection of asylum-seekers in situations of large-scale influx (A/AC.96/601)
Regina v. Immigration Officer at Prague Airport and another (Respondents) ex parte European Roma Rights Centre and others, House of Lords, Session 2004-05, 2004UKHL 55 on appeal from 2003EWCA Civ 666, on Thursday 9 December 2004.
United Nations General Assembly, Resolution A/RES/25/2625 (1970), 24 October 1970.
ECOSOC, "International Cooperation (Rule 8)", available at http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/underwater-cultural-heritage/unesco-manual-for-activities-directed-at-underwater-cultural-heritage/unesco-manual/general-principles/international-cooperation/ accessed on 27 May 2017;
SompongSucharitkul, â€œThe Principle of Good-Neighborliness in International Lawâ€, GGU Law Digital Commons (1996).
New Humanity, "Human Rights and International Solidarity", available at http://www.new-humanity.org/it/pdf/english/human-rights/59-responses-to-the-questionnaire-prepared-by-the-ie-on-human-rights-and-int-solidarity/file.html accessed on 27 May 2017.
UNHCR, â€œMechanisms of International Cooperation to Share Responsibilitiesâ€, Global Consultation on International Protection, 2001.
United Nations Declaration on Territorial Asylum, 14 Desember 1967.
Charter of the United Nations, opened for signature 26 June 1945, 1 UNTS XVI (entered into force 24 October 1945).
Guy S. Goodwin-Gill, â€œThe Dynamic of International Refugee Lawâ€, International Journal of Refugee Law, 2013.
Vincent Chetail, â€œAre Refugees Rights Human Rights? An Unorthodox Questioning of the Relations between Refugee Law and Human Rights Lawâ€, Oxford Scholarship Online, 2014.
Alexander Betts, â€œComprehensive Plans of Action: Insights from CIREFCA and the Indochinese CPAâ€, UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, 2006.
BBC.com, "Syria: The Story of the Conflict", available at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26116868 accessed on 23 May 2017.
UNHCR, "Syria Emergency", available at http://www.unhcr.org/syria-emergency.html accessed on 23 May 2017.
Syrian Refugee, â€œThe Syrian Refugee Crisis and Its Repercussions for the EU", available at http://syrianrefugees.eu accessed on 23 May 2017.
World Economic Forum, "Leaders Call for International Help to Solve Syrian Refugee Crisis", available at https://www.weforum.org/press/2015/05/leaders-call-for-international-help-to-solve-syrian-refugee-crisis/ accessed on 23 may 2017.
Melissa Fleming, â€œStatement by UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Antonio Guterres on Refugee Crisis in Europe", available at http://www.unhcr.org/news/press/2015/9/55e9459f6/statement-un-high-commissioner-refugees-antonio-guterres-refugee-crisis.html accessed on 23 May 2017.
Center for Mediterranean Integration (CIM), "UN Refugee Summit Issues a New Declaration for Refugees and Migrants", available at http://cmimarseille.org/highlights/un-refugee-summit-issues-new-declaration-refugees-and-migrants accessed on 28 May 2017; United Nations General Assembly, Resolution A/RES/71/1, 3 October 2016, p. 4.
UNHCR, "New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants", available at http://www.cpcnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Quick-Guide-NY-Declaration.pdf accessed on 24 May 2017.
Donald Kerwin, â€œThe New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, Responsibility Sharing, and the US Resettlement Program", available at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/donald-kerwin/the-new-york-declaration_b_12494856.html accessed on 28 May 2017.
UNHCR, â€œComprehensive Refugees Response Framework: from the New York Declaration to a Global Compact on Refugees,â€ CRRF Task Team 2016, p. 1.
VOA, "Indonesia Breaks Silence on Refugees with Presidential Decrees", available at https://www.voanews.com/a/indonesia-breaks-silence-on-refugees-with-presidential-decree/3696079.html accessed on 2 June 2017.
United Nations, "General Assembly Adopts Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, as United Nations, International Organization for Migration Sign Key Agreement", Meetings Coverage and Press Release 2016, available at https://www.un.org/press/en/2016/ga11820.doc.htm accessed on 31 May 2017.
Wapresri.go.id, â€œStatement by H.E. Mr. JusufKalla Vice-President of The Republic of Indonesia at At The High-Level Plenary Meeting to Address Large Movements of Refugees and Migrantsâ€, available at http://www.wapresri.go.id/en/statement-by-h-e-mr-jusuf-kalla-vice-president-of-the-republic-of-indonesia-at-at-the-high-level-plenary-meeting-to-address-large-movements-of-refugees-and-migrants/accessed on 8 July 2017.
ASEAN, "ASEAN Ministers Meet on Irregular Movement of Persons", available at http://asean.org/asean-ministers-meet-on-irregular-movement-of-persons/ accessed on 2 June 2017.
ASEAN, â€œASEAN Document Series 2015: Kuala Lumpur Declaration on Irregular Movement of Persons in Southeast Asia,â€ The ASEAN Secretariat Jakarta, 2015.
Kompas.com, â€œJokowiPastikan Malaysia dan Thailand SiapKerjasama Bantu PengungsiRohingyaâ€, available at: http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2015/05/23/13371261/Jokowi.Pastikan.Malaysia.dan.Thailand.Siap.Kerja.Sama.Bantu.Pengungsi.Rohingya accessed on 6 June 2017.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Malaysia, Press Release: Joint Statement, Ministerial Meeting on Irregular Movement of People in Southeast Asia, 2015.
How to Cite
This journal embed or display simple machine-readable CC licensing information. This journal allow reuse and remixing of content in accordance with a Creative Commons license, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY NC). This license (CC BY NC) allows other users to re-edit / rewrite and rebuild a work non-commercially as long as the user gives credit and licenses his new work in the same domain.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY NC) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).