KRITERIA UNTUK MENENTUKAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA SEBAGAI “JUS COGENS” DALAM HUKUM INTERNASIONAL

AAA Nanda Saraswati
  Arena Hukum, Vol 10, No 2 (2017),  pp. 163-184  
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Abstract


Abstract

In international law, there are norms which have the status or degree of jus cogens, therefore may not be violated, excluded or exempted under any circumstances. When a new norm of jus cogens in international law emerges, any treaty in conflict with that norm becomes invalid or void. This is what distinguishes jus cogens with other norms or principles in international law. This journal aims to determine the criteria for determining the principles of jus cogens and to analyze which human rights can be categorized as a jus cogens in international law. This journal is a normative research, using a statute and a conceptual approach. To determine the criteria of jus cogens, this paper analyzes that it should be done by looking at the formal aspects, namely the condition that forms the norm, and the substantive aspects, which are substantially the binding norrm itself. These two aspects are then used to determine which human rights can be catagorized as jus cogens. It can be seen from international recognition, the language in international agreements, both in the preamble and the articles, the majority of countries that have ratified the agreement, and also the analysis of the decision or judicial body towards such international norms.


Abstrak

Dalam hukum internasional, terdapat beberapa norma yang memiliki status jus cogens, sehingga tidak dapat dilanggar, dikesampingkan atau dikecualikan dalam keadaan apapun. Bila muncul norma jus cogens yang baru dalam hukum internasional, maka perjanjian yang telah ada yang bertentangan dengan norma tersebut menjadi tidak sah atau batal. Hal inilah yang membedakannya dengan norma dan prinsip hukum internasional yang lain. Jurnal ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kriteria untuk menentukan prinsip jus cogens dalam hukum internasional serta menganalisa hak asasi manusia apa saja yang dapat dikategorikan sebagai jus cogens dalam hukum internasional. Jurnal ini merupakan penelitian normatif, dengan pendekatan perundang-undangan (statute approach) dan pendekatan konseptual (conseptual approach). Untuk menentukan kriteria jus cogens, jurnal ini menganalisa bahwa hendaknya dilakukan dengan melihat aspek formal, yaitu sebuah kondisi yang membentuk norma tersebut, dan aspek substantif, dimana norrma tersebut memiliki substansi yang memaksa. Sedangkan untuk menentukan HAM apa saja yang merupakan jus cogens, maka dapat dianalisa berdasarkan aspek formal dan substantif diatas yang dapat dilihat dari pengakuan internasional, bahasa di dalam sejumlah perjanjian internasional, baik di dalam preambul maupun pasal-pasal, mayoritas negara yang telah meratifikasi perjanjian tentang norma jus cogens tersebut, dan juga analisis terhadap putusan badan atau peradilan internasional terkait norma tersebut.


Keywords


jus cogens

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References


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